By G. Vigo. South Carolina State University.

Accompanying movements of the upper other hand purchase propecia 1 mg amex hair loss in men treatments, fast movements can help establish the extent extremities may occur buy propecia 5mg visa hair loss natural treatment, for example during testing for 2 of the spasticity. A rough indication can be obtained by asking from a supine position and to hop or stand on one leg is when the child started walking unassisted (generally by useful for investigating the tone, postural function and the 18th month at the latest) or possibly sitting unassisted coordination of the muscles. Brunner causing even slight stretching of the muscles to elicit the muscle reflex and produce a tetanic contraction. A In organizing our daily routine, most of us take the con- precondition for this outcome is an intact second motor cept of locomotion for granted. This spasticity typically affects muscle groups ing is impaired in many orthopaedic conditions. The optimal use of external forces requires coordinated On the one hand, spasticity can be triggered by movements of limbs and trunk. The The normal gait term spasticity is also used to describe a scenario of The orthopaedist must be fully conversant with the nor- general, tenacious resistance, without cogwheel rigidity, mal gait before analyzing a patient’s walk and identifying as the joints are moved through their range of motion, any pathologies. The various and, in some cases, complex the resistance being much weaker when the joints are movements during walking are designed to move the moved very slowly. Dystonia involves a change in the body’s center of gravity forward as uniformly as possible muscle tone. At the Ataxia occurs primarily during walking, and the pa- same time, external forces (such as gravitation and mass tient’s steps appear uncertain and of differing length. The movements) are controlled in such a way that the forward feet are subject to constant stabilizing movements during movement occurs with the minimum of expenditure. As regards the differential diagnosis, the this end, the leg must perform the chain of movements in doctor should consider the possibility of impaired vision an orderly sequence. Directly before the foot strikes A typical athetosis can readily be identified by the the ground, the sole is perpendicular to the lower leg spontaneous movements of the extremities and head or (plantigrade) or in very slight plantar flexion (approx. Frequently, however, only a single athetotic com- 5°), and the foot and toe levator muscles are active. The athetotic movements may be slight the heel strikes the ground, the foot is plantarflexed until and occur only occasionally, or may be completely absent the sole strikes the floor. Placing the sole of the foot on the floor is In the search for individual typical neurological controlled by the foot levator muscles. The lower leg then signs and symptoms, the coordinating functions of the moves forward over the foot that is now resting on the nervous system must also be checked. Clumsiness is floor, resulting in a dorsal extension movement in the often present, as are balance problems of varying se- ankles, which is cushioned by the eccentric contraction of 33 2 2. The full range phase, the hip joint is not only flexed but also externally of this movement is between 15° and 20°. At the same time, the leg is slightly adducted dur- this dorsal extension, the eccentric contraction of the tri- ing the stance phase and slightly abducted during the ceps progresses to concentric contraction via an isometric swing phase. As a result, the heel is raised and the foot pushes tion in the swing phase causes the whole leg to be slightly the leg away from the ground (»third rocker«). The deceleration of the As preconditions for the analysis, the patient must be un- lower leg’s forward movement over the foot resting on dressed down to the underpants and be capable of walk- the ground results in passive extension in the knee as the ing a sufficiently long distance (at least 3 meters). The ground the assessor should sit on a low stool so that the eyes can reaction force, which can be presented as a vector between be kept roughly at the height of the patient’s pelvis. Gait foot and ground, shifts from a position behind the knee is assessed primarily from the front and back. While the force behind it would be more productive to perform the examination the knee can be subdivided into a component acting in from the side, this viewpoint is rarely possible for reasons the direction of the ground and a knee-flexing compo- of space. In other words, the knee swing and stance phases and the movements of the pelvis. The body’s center of gravity are employed to replace muscle length of this passive pendulum and the weight of the activity. A familiar type of limp is the exaggerated drop- leg determine the comfortable walking pace and step ping of the pelvis on the side of the swing leg, known as length, which differ slightly from one person to the next. Both are indicative of a functional deficit the knee initially undergoes slight additional flexion of in the hip abductors on the stance leg side as they fail to approx. During the swing phase Forward leaning of the upper body relieves the load the knee is flexed by approx. Active, full stretching of the knee maximum flexion is reached when the knee passes the after the foot strikes the ground is indicative of plantar stance leg.

Trevor D (1950) Tarso-epiphyseal aclasis: A congenital error of Classification epiphyseal development propecia 5mg otc hair loss finasteride. Zabel B purchase propecia 5 mg without a prescription hair loss under arms, Hilbert K, Stoss H, Superti-Furga A, Spranger J, Win- The most striking features in acrocephalosyndactyly terpacht A (1996) A specific collagen type II gene (COL2A1) are the shape of the head, the face and the synostoses mutation presenting as spondyloperipheral dysplasia. Zeitlin L, Fassier F, Glorieux F (2003) Modern approach to children slightly larger than normal. Classification of synostoses of the hands obstruction of the upper airways with sleep apnea. In two- thirds of cases, block vertebrae with restricted mobility of I Synostosis between rays II–IV, rays I and V separate the cervical spine are observed. II Synostoses between rays II–V, only ray I separate Prognosis, treatment III Synostoses between all rays Life expectancy is not significantly restricted in patients with Apert syndrome. Osteotomies are per- formed at a relatively early stage on the cranial synostoses to prevent any impairment of brain growth. The syndactylies on the hands should be separated at the age of 1–2 years in order to avoid any additional in- terference with the length growth of the fingers ( Chap- ter 3. Depending on the position of the fingers, oste- otomies may be required, but amputations are obsolete. Since the fingers are very rigid, deformities are poorly tolerated since an immobile projecting finger can prove very troublesome. The hy- perextension of the great toe can often lead to difficulties when putting on shoes. Toes that deviate markedly to- wards the plantar side can hinder the heel-to-toe roll. The management of children with acrocephalosyn- dactyly requires close collaboration between neurosur- geons, plastic surgeons, hand surgeons and orthopaedists. AP x-ray of the hand of a 3-year old boy withApert syndrome tures that affect the major joints (shoulder, elbow, hip and and several synostoses between the metacarpals and phalanges knee), although regular physical therapy is indicated in order to improve mobility. Multiple synostoses are present in the Spondylocostal dysplasia (Jarcho-Levin syndrome) tarsal and carpal areas. In the more severe forms, the This is a hereditary condition with multiple deformities of hands and feet form a single plate with almost no inde- the spine and synostoses of the ribs, usually on both sides. Details of the clinical features and treatment are In addition to these outwardly striking features, move- provided in Chapter 4. The use of the »vertical ex- ment is also often restricted at the elbow and shoulder [3, pandable prosthetic titanium ribs« (VEPTR) offers new 6]. Shoulder mobility is never completely normal and possibilities for improving lung function. Elbow mobility is also usually restricted to a greater or lesser extent. A certain stiffness is usually observed in the hips and knees, although the 4. This category includes the various groups of the Fanconi The craniosynostoses impair cranial growth and lead syndrome (with renally related osteomalacia), the Cof- to increased intracranial pressure. This, in turn, leads to fin-Siris syndrome (brachydactyly, abnormalities of the psychomotor retardation and problems with the ophthal- nails, clinodactyly, facial abnormalities), symphalangism mic nerve and muscles. The Cof- posed by the presence of cervical spondylolisthesis since fin-Siris syndrome is characterized by an absent nail and it can lead to tetraplegia. These syndromes required surgical correction, since the deviation prevents are all either extremely rare or are of little orthopaedic normal opposition, making a pinch grip impossible or at relevance. A wedge osteotomy combined with a Z-plasty, and occasionally a rotation osteotomy, is usually Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome required. If possible, the operation should be undertaken This autosomal-dominant symptom complex (gene lo- during the first two years of life so that hand-eye coordi- cufs 22q13, 16p13. The thumb is deviated toward the radius References ( »hitchhiker thumb«; ⊡ Fig. Z Orthop 116: 1–6 tionately large, and the philtrum between the nose and the 3. Cohen MM Jr, Kreiborg S (1993) Skeletal abnormalities in the Ap- upper lip ends beneath the alae. Am J Med Genet 47: 624–32 Although this disorder is rare and only occurs spo- 4.

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It is incorrect to imply that only psychodynamic treatment addresses emotional problems purchase propecia 5 mg free shipping hair loss in men quartz. PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS AND CHRONIC PAIN 291 similar to CB therapy generic 1 mg propecia otc hair loss in men ministry, namely, a cognitive emotional shift. The therapist aims to help the patient accept his or her pain as important but not a defin- ing aspect of the self, and as regrettable but nevertheless manageable. Through therapy the person becomes an individual with persistent pain, who is able to remove pain from the center of existence and find purpose instead of anguish (Grzesiak et al. Evidence and Commentary One of the main criticisms regarding the psychodynamic approach is that the ideas are not well formulated or comprehensive (Turk & Flor, 1984). There is very little data on the efficacy or effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy, and therefore one must question whether time and financial re- sources should be used for a therapy of no proven value. For psycho- dynamic therapy to warrant serious consideration, attention needs to be given to standardization of treatment protocols and randomized compari- son to alternate treatment strategies. Given the higher cost involved in this typically longer term approach, it needs to show itself to be considerably more effective than other approaches. PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION SECONDARY TO MEDICAL INTERVENTION Although psychological treatment for chronic pain is no longer conceptual- ized as a treatment of last resort, and some suggest it as first resort (Loe- ser, 2000), there are few published accounts of its integration with medical treatment and much less research. The primary area where reference is made to the integration of psychologists on medical teams is in multi- disciplinary pain clinics or programs (e. In this case, patients have been found to give higher ratings of treatment helpfulness to psychological and educational interventions than to physical and medical modalities (Chapman, Jamison, Sanders, Lyman & Lynch, 2000). Some attention has also been given to how psychol- ogists can be part of a team in selecting patients for treatments of true last resort (e. Meanwhile, there is a strong argument for maximizing the gains to be made from analgesic and surgical interventions by combining them with pain management methods. In addition, the in- creased cost of providing both types of treatment does not recommend their combination to health care funders. Presented with an apparent choice, the patient understandably will invest in pain relief and take a rain check on pain management. The lack of adequate integrated models in de- livering medically based interventions and pain management strategies, in medical as well as in lay minds, perpetuates this problem. On adherence to drugs, commonsense models dominated early research but have been disappointing (Horne, 1998). Adherence is a set of behaviors, not a single behavior, and is weakly or not predicted by knowledge (of the aim of taking the drug, of its unwanted effects, of what to do in the event of a missed dose, etc. Addressing the costs and benefits of taking the drug, and identifying the patient’s beliefs about drug use in general and in the particular case, can be helpful, as can the physician’s monitoring of the drug and the patient’s progress. It is not at all unusual for patients to have major and unfounded fears concerning the risks of using particular drugs that mean that they use those drugs in a suboptimal way; this has been shown most clearly in relation to opioid non-use in cancer patients (Ward et al. The phenomenon of intelligent nonadherence, when the bene- fits are outweighed by the costs of taking the drug, must also be recognized and addressed, or the physician is rendered ineffective by the patient’s in- complete account of his or her behavior. Physicians’ and patients’ esti- mates of the extent of barrier to use presented by particular adverse effects differ substantially. Therefore, eliciting the report of an adverse effect (such as dry mouth with tricyclic antidepressants) should be followed by investi- gation of its implications (such as avoiding social conversation). The cognitive approach that estimates the personal costs and benefits of adherence to recommended physical exercises may also be useful, al- though the area presents some different problems. Physiotherapists often offer too much rather than too little information (so that desirable adher- ence is hard to measure) (Sluijs, Kerssens, van der Zee, & Myers, 1998), and enjoyment of the exercise may be an important factor in maintaining exer- cise regimens (Jones, Harris, & McGee, 1998). That would suggest that intro- ducing the patient to as many as possible sports, exercise routines, and even energetic leisure activities, such as some types of dance, may encour- age adherence by finding at least one that he or she enjoys. However, ad- herence to exercise by the healthy population is notoriously low over months, and practical issues of access to facilities play an important part (Sallis & Owen, 1998). PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS AND CHRONIC PAIN 293 Adherence to pain management methods both during and after treat- ment programs is somewhat underresearched, and little evidence has so far accrued that can identify the extent of adherence necessary to ensure maintenance of treatment gains or improvement on them. Research evi- dence suggests that complete adherence is not necessary for a positive treatment outcome (Silver, Blanchard, Williamson, Theobold, & Brown, 1979), but rather that gains may be greater among those with the highest adherence (Parker et al. Causes of nonadherence to pain manage- ment programs have been investigated (Turk & Rudy, 1991), but measure- ment of nonadherence itself is complicated in that patients often adhere to some aspects of a program and not others (so cannot be simply divided into adherents and nonadherents for comparison). Results of this research suggest that adherence is generally low among patients (e. As noted by Turk and Rudy (1991), hundreds of variables have been studied in relation to adher- ence, and not surprisingly the results are inconsistent, with contributions to variance from components of treatment program, the injury, the pro- vider–patient relationship, social support, and patient characteristics (see Turk & Rudy, 1991).

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Only the aerobic duration) but rather changes the proportion of energy endurance pathway can produce large amounts of expended from carbohydrates and fat purchase propecia 5 mg hair loss treatment using stem cells. As a result of ATP over extended periods of time via the Krebs training purchase propecia 1mg amex hair loss in men going, the energy derived from fat increases and the cycle and the electron transport system. The changeover from anaerobic to aerobic pathways vidual uses a higher percentage of fat than an untrained is not abrupt, nor is there ever a time when one path- person at the same workload (Hurley et al, 1986). The intensity, duration, fre- Long-chain fatty acids derived from stored muscle quency, type of activity, and fitness level of the triglycerides are the preferred fuel for aerobic exercise participant determines when the crossover from pri- for individuals involved in mild- to moderate-intensity marily anaerobic to aerobic pathways occurs. GENERAL DIETARY NEEDS The more energy used in activity, the more calories OF ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS need to be consumed in the diet. CALORIES Individuals training for an athletic event will require more kilocalories than a sedentary individual. The ref- The dietary guidelines are predicated on consumption erence sedentary man weighs 154 lb and expends of adequate calories to sustain daily energy expendi- 2700 to 3500 kcals a day (average 3025) between the ture and should be provided on an individual basis ages of 20 and 29 years. Energy needs for strength trainers and body- The cost of the iron man triathlon (consisting of a 2. PROTEINS CONVERSION OF ENERGY SOURCES OVER TIME Approximately 50–60% of energy during 1 to 4 h of Protein requirements for both endurance and strength continuous exercise at 70% of maximal oxygen athletes should be individualized to determine adequacy capacity is derived from carbohydrates and the remain- of intake. The majority of athletes are consuming ade- ing energy is derived from fat (Coyle et al, 1986). TABLE 14-1 Estimated Energy Expenditure at Various Levels of Physical Activity LEVEL OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE INTENSITY TYPE OF ACTIVITY (KCAL/KG/DAY) Moderate Walking 3. CHAPTER 14 NUTRITION 85 High quality protein intake for the male endurance increased performance during moderate intensity athlete performing at intensities above 65–85% of exercise has been observed (Helge et al, 1996). This protein intake is required to provide for the oxidation of amino acids The general guidelines for the endurance athlete are during high intensity exercise (Snyder and Naik, that between 60 and 70% of total kilocalories, or 8 and 1998). For example, a 150-lb man would need about 10 g/kg body weight should be in the form of carbo- 75 to 113 g of protein per day. Female athletes may hydrates, especially for those participating in training require 10–20% less protein than male athletes. In early stages of resistance training, the of 6 g/kg body weight (Walberg-Rankin, 1995). Animal proteins are complete pro- W ater loss during exercise occurs primarily through teins providing all the essential amino acids in sweat. Sweat rate is influenced by ambient tempera- amounts necessary for production of body proteins. Furthermore, animal and extracellular fluid compartments, which can lead foods generally provide more protein per serving than to changes in electrolyte balance of both sodium and plant foods. Good sources of animal protein include potassium, particularly, and may influence cardio res- meat, eggs, and dairy products. Soy protein is a plant The average person does not consume enough fluid to protein; however, soy protein is a higher quality pro- offset sweat losses during exercise. Physical performance is impaired when 3–4% body weight is lost (Noakes, 1993). FATS Physiologic changes accompanying dehydration include impaired heat dissipation, decreased plasma Dietary fat intake should provide no more than 30% volume, and impaired skin blood flow, which can lead of total kilocalories. For example, a 150-lb athlete to decreased stroke volume, increased heart rate, car- who consumes 3750 kcals a day would need 125 g of diac drift, and ultimately heat stroke (Montain and fat. Drinking throughout required to prevent staleness (Houtkooper, 1992; the day can ensure a euhydrated state. The ever, neither the rate of use of glycogen nor an practical recommendation is to consume 150 to 350 mL 86 SECTION 1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN SPORTS MEDICINE TABLE 14-2 Dietary Reference Intakes for Selected Vitamins NUTRIENT LIFE STAGE GROUP RDA∗ UL† SELECTED FOOD SOURCES Folate Male Enriched cereal grains, dark leafy vegetables, enriched and whole-grain 19–50 y 400 µg/d 1000 µg/d breads and bread products, fortified ready-to-eat cereals Female 19–50 y 400 µg/d 1000 µg/d Niacin Male Meat, fish, poultry, enriched and whole-grain breads and bread products, 19–50 y 16 mg/d 35 mg/d fortified ready-to-eat cereals Female 19–50 y 14 mg/d 35 mg/d Riboflavin Male Organ meats, milk, bread products and fortified cereals 19–50 y 1. When the exercise lasts Active individuals expend energy in exercise that ele- more than 1 h, addition of 4–8% carbohydrate (glucose, vates both caloric and nutrient needs; however, for the sucrose, fructose, glucose polymers, and the like) and/or most part, increased nutrient needs are met when ath- electrolytes can be beneficial (Murray et al, 1989). Athletes who restrict amount of carbohydrate with the addition of electrolytes their intake for the purpose of maintaining a lower ensures maximal stimulation of fluid absorption because body weight may be at increased risk for nutrient defi- of increased palatability and aids in gastric emptying. Body weight The majority of research has indicated that athletes changes are the best method of determining fluid are consuming adequate amounts of these micronutri- replacement amounts after exercise. Five hundred ents; however, more research is necessary to ade- milliliters of fluid should be consumed for every 1 lb quately evaluate the B12 and folate status of athletes of weight lost (Shirreffs et al, 1996).

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